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    數字證書在稅務系統中的應用

    2016-2-29 16:24:31

        ◇納稅人的報稅活動涉及到企業納稅信息(資金、稅種、額度等)、國家財政稅收信息等敏感信息。國稅網上申報系統作為基于互聯網的應用,在操作過程中不可避免面臨由于虛擬、匿名、公開、明文等互聯網特性而帶來的信息安全問題。
        ◇為了保護網上報稅業務數據的機密性、完整性和不可否認性,以及維護納稅人和稅務部門的利益,國家稅務總局要求必須利用數字證書和電子認證技術,在納稅人和稅務部門之間構建起可靠的網絡信任機制和信息安全保障。
        ◇經過近十年的發展,遼寧省已經實現“一企一證,一證通用”。通過工商部門頒發的“法人一證通”證書,可以在所有政府部門應用。已開通工商、地稅、質監、社保、公積金中心、財政、經信委、藥監、民政等多個部門應用,應用范圍覆蓋全省的企業。

         一、需求分析:
        目前國稅網上申報系統的網絡基礎是互聯網,而互聯網固有的開放性又具有用戶真實身份驗證困難、信息在網絡傳輸保密性差、容易遭受惡意篡改、用戶容易抵賴其網絡行為等問題;同時,在網上申報過程中沒有產生具有法律效力的電子申報數據,極大增加了國稅部門的業務安全風險,企業用戶的權益也無法有效保障。
        因此可以看出,網上申報系統安全需求主要包括以下內容:
        1、確保納稅企業身份真實性;
        2、確保申報信息傳輸的機密性;
        3、確保網上申報過程中信息完整、不可否認性;
        4、有效區分網上申報業務中申報企業和國稅部門的責任。

         二、方案設計:
        1、設計思想
        國稅網上申報業務的安全保障核心,是在互聯網開展的網上申報業務上實現傳統的權益保障,建立基于“身份認證、授權管理、責任認定”網上申報業務的安全保障機制,實現對網上申報業務的安全保障。
        本方案采用的總體思路是,在現有已成熟的申報系統框架下,依托《中華人民共和國電子簽名法》,為企業用戶頒發數字證書,網上申報系統通過集成數字證書及電子認證相關軟硬件設備,為企業用戶網上申報業務提供合法的數字證書強身份認證、合法電子簽名、安全數字加密等功能,有效推動國稅網上申報向安全化、合法化轉變。

        2、總體規劃
        在原有網上申報系統基礎上,遵循《電子簽名法》,建設數字證書和電子認證服務相關軟硬件,搭建完整高效的信息安全保障體系。
        申報系統企業端,通過安全服務中間件完成對企業數字證書的操作,實現納稅人數字證書的獲取、識別、解析、簽名/驗簽、加密/解密等操作。
        申報系統服務端,通過調用電子認證服務模塊(網關設備)的服務接口,實現簽名驗證、服務端簽名、加密/解密等功能,形成網絡傳輸過程中的安全防篡改機制;
        網上申報系統應用安全解決方案總體架構如下圖所示:


        3、服務端口


        4、組網方案
        依據前面的總體規劃,組網方案如下:

        1)依托LNCA服務體系,面向納稅人及相關管理人員簽發數字證書;
        2)納稅用戶使用數字證書登錄國稅網上申報系統進行網上申報,申報數據采用SSL安全通道實現數據安全保護;
        3)申報系統服務端部署站點證書,防止網站遭受釣魚攻擊,同時激活SSL安全通道協議保障數據傳輸過程的真實完整和防泄密;
        4)在申報系統服務端部署信息安全網關,實現登錄用戶的身份認證、簽名數據的驗證檢測和服務器簽名保護。
        5)遼寧CA證書管理系統與國稅信息安全網關安全采用基于互聯網的SSL安全連接(https),實時推送證書黑白名單,確保證書狀態一致。
        6)申報應用系統可以連接遼寧省統一認證平臺,作為認證服務的備份方案,當本地信息安全網關無法正常提供服務時,由統一認證平臺接替承載認證服務,確保申報業務不中斷,進一步提高認證服務的高可用性

        5、數字證書應用設計
        納稅人身份認證
        ◆ 新辦理證書的納稅人,下載數字證書驅動程序,打開網上申報系統頁面,插入UsbKey數字證書進行強身份認證登錄。
        ◆ 已辦理地稅業務的用戶,無需再次下載安裝數字證書驅動程序,打開網上申報系統頁面,插入UsbKey數字證書進行強身份認證登錄。啥
        ◆ 網上申報系統調用信息安全網關服務接口,對使用數字證書登錄的用戶信息進行身份驗證,包括證書有效期、證書吊銷列表、證書合法性等驗證。
        ◆ 認證通過后,用戶可以進入系統進行各項稅務申報業務,申報數據通過SSL安全通道實現安全保護。

        數字簽名
        ◆ 用戶登錄系統后,填寫申報數據;
        ◆ 申報系統客戶端調用證書安全服務中間件,對申報數據進行數字簽名;
        ◆ 數據簽名信息隨同申報材料一起提交到申報網站;
        ◆ 申報網站調用簽名驗簽服務器服務接口,驗證數字簽名的真實有效,驗證通過后存入數據庫供后臺工作人員進行審批;
        ◆ 內部工作人員審批通過后,安全存儲在服務器,一旦發生糾紛,則可以作為電子證據,為責任認定提供依據;
        ◆ 為了強化數據的安全性,申報系統可調用簽名驗簽服務器,對申報材料進行服務器端簽名,此時申報材料具有申報單位和國稅雙方數字簽名。

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